## Fixed-point computations order

Data-based synthesis essentially works by computations that involve predicates that partition the entire state space into states that satisfy a property or donâ€™t satisfy a property. For instance, a marker predicate may indicate which states of the state space are marked. All other states are thus not marked.

The main computations performed during synthesis involve reachability computations. For instance, from which states is it possible to reach a marker state? To compute the states that can reach a marker state, the marker predicate of the input specification is used. The marker predicate indicates the states that are themselves marked. Then, the states are calculated that can reach one of those marked states, via a single transition. They are put together, to form the states that are marked or can be marked after one transition. By taking another such step, we can add the states that can reach a marked state via two transitions. We then have all states that can reach a marked state via zero, one, or two transitions. We can repeat this until no new states are found, which is called reaching a fixed point. The order in which transitions are considered and states are found may however not be exactly as described, as it is configurable.

The form of reachability described above is called *backward* reachability, as it starts from some target (e.g. marked states), and goes backwards to find all states from which the target can be reached. Conversely, *forward* reachability starts from the initial states, and adds states reachable via transitions until all reachable states are found.

Multiple fixed-point reachability computations are performed during synthesis:

*Computing the non-blocking states*: The non-blocking states are those states that can reach a marked state. They are computed by a backward reachability computation, starting from the marker predicates. This computation is mandatory, to ensure that a valid supervisor is computed.*Computing the controllable states*: The controllable states are those states where only controllable events are restricted. They are computed by inverting the result of a backward reachibility computation over only the uncontrollable events, starting from the bad states. This computation is mandatory, to ensure that a valid supervisor is computed.*Computing the reachable states*: The reachable states are those states that can be reached from an initial state. They are computed by a forward reachability computation, starting from the initial states. Performing a forward reachability computation is optional, and can be enabled or disabled.

The enabled fixed-point computations are repeated until an overall fixed point is reached.

The order in which the different fixed-point computations are performed has no effect on the correctness of the resulting supervisor. However, it can have a significant impact on the performance of synthesis. For instance, if a model has a limited set of initial states and not many states can be reached via forward reachability, then computing the reachable states first may be beneficial. The limited set of reachable states may then impact a subsequent non-blocking computation, which only needs to consider those reachable states, which could reduce the effort needed to complete the computation. It may also reduce the size of the predicates produced during the fixed-point computation, which may reduce the amount of memory required to complete the computation and subsequent computations. However, if there are many initial states and the set of marked states is much smaller, the inverse may be true, and it could be better to start with the non-blocking computation. The best order, the order that gives the best performance, depends on the specification being synthesized.

By default, the non-blocking states computation is performed first, then the controllable states computation, and lastly the reachable states computation (if enabled). The order in which the fixed-point computations are performed can be configured using the *Fixed-point computations order* option. When specifying the value of the option on the command line, specify `nonblock`

for the non-blocking states computation, `ctrl`

for the controllable states computation, and `reach`

for the reachable states computation, in the desired order, joined by dashes. For instance, specify `ctrl-reach-nonblock`

or `reach-ctrl-nonblock`

. Note that all three fixed-point computations must be included when specifying their order, regardless of whether they are all enabled or not.

Besides the order of the fixed-point computations, enabling or disabling the forward reachability computation can also have a significant impact on the synthesis performance.